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THE FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES
All of the simple particles which exist in nature have been found to undergo reactions in which they are converted into or obtained from other particles or radiation. There are, then, no particles which can be said to be truly fundamental.
The electron was the first of the simple particles to be recognized, it being discovered by J. J. Thomson in 1897. The proton, the nucleus of the ordinary hydrogen atom, was observed as positively charged rays in a discharge tube. The nature of the rays was not at first understood. The next very simple particle to be discovered was the positron, found in 1932. The positrons were found among the particles produced by the interaction of cosmic rays with matter. They seem to be identical with electrons except that their charge is •4-e instead of -e. Their span of life as free particles is very short, it being less than a microsecond (Ixl0~~9 sec).
The neutron is known to have been discovered by the English physicist J. Chadwick, also in "the year 1932. Neutrons have been found to be particles with mass only slightly larger than that of the proton, and with zero electric charge. They having no electric charge, neutrons interact with other forms of matter only very weakly, and it is accordingly hard to prove their existence by direct method. On passage through solid substances they undergo deflection only when they approach extremely closely to nuclei, that is, when they undergo direct collisions with nuclei. Neutrons and nuclei being so small, the chance of collision is very small and neutrons are accordingly able to penetrate through great thicknesses of heavy elements.
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